Paris Agreement & Nationally determined contribution

Paris Agreement

The Paris Agreement is a legally binding international treaty on climate change. It was adopted by 196 Parties at COP 21 in Paris, on 12 December 2015 and entered into force on 4 November 2016.

Its goal is to limit global warming to well below 2, preferably to 1.5 degrees Celsius, compared to pre-industrial levels.

To achieve this long-term temperature goal, countries aim to reach global peaking of greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible to achieve a climate neutral world by mid-century.

The Paris Agreement is a landmark in the multilateral climate change process because, for the first time, a binding agreement brings all nations into a common cause to undertake ambitious efforts to combat climate change and adapt to its effects.

How does the Paris Agreement work?

Implementation of the Paris Agreement requires economic and social transformation, based on the best available science.

The Paris Agreement works on a 5- year cycle of increasingly ambitious climate action carried out by countries.

By 2020, countries submit their plans for climate action known as nationally determined contributions (NDCs).


In their NDCs, countries communicate actions they will take to reduce their Greenhouse Gas emissions in order to reach the goals of the Paris Agreement.

      Countries also communicate in the NDCs actions they will take to build resilience to adapt to the            impacts of rising temperatures

Long-Term Strategies

To better frame the efforts towards the long-term goal, the Paris Agreement invites countries to formulate and submit by 2020 long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategies (LT-LEDS).

How are countries supporting one another?

The Paris Agreement provides a framework for financial, technical and capacity building support to those countries who need it.


  The Paris Agreement reaffirms that developed countries should   take the   lead in providing financial assistance to countries that are less endowed and more vulnerable.

  Climate finance is needed for mitigation, because large-scale   investments are required to reduce emissions significantly.   Climate finance   is equally important for adaptation, as significant   financial resources are required to adapt to the adverse effects   and reduce the impacts of a   changing climate.


The Paris Agreement speaks of the vision of fully realizing technology development and transfer for both improving resilience to climate change and reducing GHG emissions.

It establishes a technology framework to provide overarching guidance to the well-functioning Technology Mechanism.

The mechanism is accelerating technology development and transfer through it’s policy and implementation arms.


Not all developing countries have sufficient capacities to deal with many of the challenges brought by climate change. As a   result, the Paris   Agreement places great emphasis on climate-related capacity-building for developing countries and requests all developed countries to enhance support for capacity-building actions in developing countries.

NDC: About
Nationally determined contributions (NDCs) are at the heart of the Paris Agreement and the achievement of these long-term goals.
NDCs embody efforts by each country to reduce national emissions and adapt to the impacts of climate change.
The Paris Agreement (Article 4, paragraph 2) requires each Party to prepare, communicate and maintain successive nationally determined contributions (NDCs) that it intends to achieve.
Parties shall pursue domestic mitigation measures, with the aim of achieving the objectives of such contributions.
The Paris Agreement requests each country to outline and communicate their post-2020 climate actions, known as their NDCs.
Together, these climate actions determine whether the world achieves the long-term goals of the Paris Agreement and to reach global peaking of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as soon as possible and to undertake rapid reductions thereafter in accordance with the best available science.
It is understood that the peaking of emissions will take longer for developing country Parties, and that emission reductions are undertaken on the basis of equity, and in the context of sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty, which are critical development priorities for many developing countries.
The Paris Agreement recognizes that the long-term goals specified in its Articles 2 and 4.1 will be achieved through time and, therefore, builds on a ratcheting up of aggregate and individual ambition over time.
NDCs are submitted every five years to the UNFCCC secretariat.
India and NDC

The revised NDC aims to increase India's contributions to the Paris Agreement's goal of strengthening the global response to the challenge of climate change.

India pledged to step up its climate action at the 26th Conference of the Parties (COP26) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which was held in Glasgow, United Kingdom. India did this by showcasing its five nectar (pancamrit) ingredients (Panchamrit) to the world.

The 'Panchamrit' stated at COP 26 is translated into improved climate targets by this modification to India's current NDC.

The upgrade also advances India's long-term objective of becoming net-zero by 2070.

On October 2, 2015, India sent the UNFCCC its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC).

The 2015 NDC contained eight goals, three of which have quantitative targets for 2030, including the goal of reaching 40% non-fossil installed electric power capacity, cutting the GDP's emissions intensity by 33 to 35% from 2005 levels, and creating an additional 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of carbon sink through increased forest and tree cover.

New targets

According to the revised NDC, India is now committed to reducing the GDP's emissions intensity by 45 percent from 2005 levels by 2030 and generating nearly half of all installed electric power capacity from sources other than fossil fuels.

The decision also advances the prime minister's vision of climate justice and sustainable lifestyles to safeguard the weak and underprivileged from the negative effects of climate change.

"To put forward and further disseminate a healthy and sustainable way of life based on traditions and values of conservation and moderation, especially through a mass movement for "LIFE"- "Lifestyle for Environment" as a cornerstone to addressing climate change," states the amended NDC.

The choice to adopt enhanced NDCs indicates India's dedication to decoupling economic growth from greenhouse gas emissions at the highest level.

After carefully evaluating our national conditions, the principle of common but differentiated obligations, and the individual capabilities, India's updated NDC was created (CBDR-RC). India's revised NDC confirms our determination to pursue a pathway with low carbon emissions while also making an effort to meet sustainable development objectives.

The Prime Minister of India presented a "One-Word Movement" to the international community at COP 26 in recognition of the significant role that lifestyle plays in climate change. This one word stands for "Lifestyle For Environment" (L.I.F.E.).

Living in harmony with our world and causing no harm to it is the goal of LIFE. This citizen-centric approach to combating climate change is also captured in India's amended NDC.

The modified NDC serves as the roadmap for India's switch to greener energy from 2021 to 2030.

The revamped framework will present a chance to improve India's manufacturing capacity and increase exports, along with many other government measures, such as tax breaks and incentives like the Production Linked Incentive scheme for promoting manufacturing and adoption of renewable energy.

Overall, it will boost the number of green jobs in fields like renewable energy, clean energy industries, the automotive industry, the production of low-emission products like electric vehicles and extremely energy-efficient appliances, and cutting-edge technologies like green hydrogen.

The new National Development Plan (NDP) of India will be executed over the years 2021–2030 via programmes and schemes of pertinent Ministries/Departments and with the necessary assistance from States and Union Territories.

To increase India's efforts in both adaptation and mitigation, the government has developed a number of projects and programmes.

Under these plans and programmes, appropriate actions are being taken in a variety of areas, including water, agriculture, forestry, energy, business, sustainable mobility and housing, waste management, circular economy, and resource efficiency, among others.

The aforementioned actions have allowed India to gradually separate economic growth from greenhouse gas emissions.

Indian Railways alone will reduce emissions by 60 million tonnes yearly by achieving its Net Zero goal by 2030.

Similar to this, India is decreasing emissions by 40 million tonnes a year thanks to a large LED bulb push.

India's NDC does not obligate it to take any sector-specific mitigation measures.

India wants to gradually lower its total emission intensity and boost its economy's energy efficiency while also safeguarding the weaker sections of the economy and society.

Posted by on 4th Aug 2022