The Supreme Court laid down that a Governor cannot sit on key bills passed by a state legislature after casting doubts on the validity of the Assembly session in which the proposed laws were passed with overwhelming majority by the elected representatives of the people.

The court settled in a writ petition represented by senior advocate A.M SIngvi.


In India, the Governor's power regarding the signing of bills is an essential part of the legislative process, particularly at the state level. When a bill is passed by the state legislature, it needs the assent of the Governor to become a law. The Governor's role in this process is guided by the Constitution of India under Article 200.

The Governor possesses three options when a bill is presented for consideration:

  1. Gives Assent: If the Governor is in agreement with the bill, they provide their assent, and the bill becomes law. However, the Governor can withhold assent in case the bill violates the Constitution or if the bill requires further review or clarification.
  2. Withholds Assent: If the Governor believes the bill is unconstitutional or requires more deliberation, they can choose to withhold their assent. This action effectively prevents the bill from becoming law.
  3. Sends the Bill for Consideration: In certain circumstances, the Governor can return the bill to the legislature for reconsideration. This happens when the Governor believes changes or modifications are necessary for the bill to align better with the Constitution or other legal provisions.

However, it's crucial to note that the power of the Governor in signing bills isn't absolute. There are checks and balances in place to prevent arbitrary use of this power. The Governor functions within the framework of the Constitution and is expected to act on the advice of the council of ministers, headed by the Chief Minister, except in cases where the Governor is required to use their discretion.

This process is designed to ensure that laws passed by the state legislature are in accordance with the Constitution and serve the best interests of the state and its people.

Issues in Governor not Signing a bill

The refusal of a Governor to sign a bill can lead to several potential issues:

Delay in Implementation:

If the Governor withholds assent or returns the bill for reconsideration, it can significantly delay the implementation of a law. This delay might impact the intended benefits or changes the law was supposed to bring about.

Political Implications:

The Governor's refusal to sign a bill can lead to political tensions, especially if there's disagreement between the ruling government and the Governor. It might create a perception of interference in the legislative process.

Stalled Legislation:

In some cases, if there's a deadlock between the Governor and the state government regarding a bill, it could result in legislative gridlock, where essential laws or policies might not be enacted due to the inability to reach an agreement.

Constitutional Concerns:

If the Governor's refusal is based on a constitutional issue, it might lead to legal challenges. This can create uncertainties and debates around the interpretation and application of constitutional principles.

Public Impact:

The non-signing of a bill might affect the public in various ways. For instance, if it's a beneficial social or economic policy, its delay or rejection could hinder public welfare or economic progress.

Legislative Revisions:

When a bill is returned for reconsideration, it necessitates further debate, potential revisions, and resubmission. While this process is democratic, it also extends the time taken for a law to come into effect.

Role of the Governor:

The Governor's role could be subject to scrutiny, especially if there are perceptions of bias, arbitrary decisions, or undue delay in signing bills.

Governance Challenges:

Uncertainty in the enactment of laws due to the Governor's actions might pose challenges for governance and administration at the state level.

Public Perception:

The public might lose confidence in the legislative process or the efficacy of the state government if bills crucial for their welfare are held up or rejected without apparent justification.

In summary, while the Governor's power in signing bills serves as a crucial check and balance in the legislative process, its contentious or prolonged use can lead to various challenges and complications in governance and lawmaking.

Posted by on 11th Nov 2023