China’s New map


‘2023 edition of the standard map of China’ too shows Arunachal and Aksai Chin within China’s borders; it’s seen as a response to India holding events in the lead-up to G-20 summit in the State.


The India-China border dispute is an ongoing territorial dispute over the sovereignty of two relatively large, and several smaller, separated pieces of territory between China and India.

The first of the territories, Aksai Chin, is administered by China as part of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and Tibet Autonomous Region and claimed by India as part of the union territory of Ladakh; it is mostly uninhabited high-altitude wasteland in the larger regions of Kashmir and Tibet and is crossed by the Xinjiang-Tibet Highway, but with some significant pasture lands at the margins.

The other territory is the Indian-claimed Arunachal Pradesh, which China claims as part of its Tibet Autonomous Region.

History of the Dispute

The dispute has its roots in the British colonial period, when the borders of India and China were not clearly defined.

After India gained independence in 1947, the two countries began to negotiate a border agreement, but these negotiations have been unsuccessful.

The dispute has led to several military clashes between India and China, the most serious of which was the 1962 Sino-Indian War.

In recent years, there have been renewed tensions along the border, with several clashes between Indian and Chinese troops.

The most serious clash occurred in June 2020 in the Galwan Valley in Ladakh, where at least 20 Indian soldiers and four Chinese soldiers were killed.

The two countries have held several rounds of talks to resolve the border dispute, but no agreement has been reached.

The dispute remains a major source of tension between India and China, and it could potentially escalate into a military conflict
Factors responsible for the dispute

The ill-defined nature of the border: The border between India and China is mostly undemarcated, which has led to ambiguity about which areas belong to which country.

The strategic importance of the border areas: The border areas between India and China are strategically important, as they control access to key resources such as water and minerals.

The rise of China as a global power: China's rise as a global power has made it more assertive in its territorial claims, including in the border dispute with India.

The lack of trust between India and China: The two countries have a long history of mistrust, which has made it difficult to reach a negotiated settlement on the border dispute.


The border dispute between India and China is a complex issue with no easy solution.

The two countries will need to find ways to manage their differences and reduce tensions to avoid a military conflict.

Practice Question

‘India and China need to find ways to manage the differences and reduce tensions to avoid a military conflict’. Discuss

Posted by on 29th Aug 2023