Disengagement at India- China LAC


PM meets the Chinese President on the sidelines of the BRICS summit; Modi says respecting the LAC is a must for normalisation of relations; this is their first such conversation on the stand-off.

India and China have agreed to step up efforts for the disengagement of troops and de-escalation of tensions along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) after a conversation between Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Chinese President Xi Jinping on the sidelines of the BRICS summit in South Africa.

About: India-China border dispute

The India-China border dispute is a longstanding territorial conflict between India and China over certain areas along their shared border.

The border between India and China is not clearly defined in certain regions, leading to differing perceptions of where the actual border lies.

This has resulted in several conflicts and military confrontations over the years.

The main areas of contention include the Aksai Chin region in the western sector and the Arunachal Pradesh region in the eastern sector.

Aksai Chin is currently administered by China, but India claims it as part of its territory.

Similarly, in the eastern sector, China claims the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh as part of its territory.

The dispute has led to a series of military clashes and diplomatic tensions between the two countries.

The most significant conflict occurred in 1962, when India and China engaged in a border war.

Since then, there have been occasional skirmishes and standoffs, including a major standoff in Doklam in 2017.

Both countries have engaged in diplomatic efforts to resolve the border dispute, but a definitive solution has not been reached.

Talks between the two sides have taken place at various levels, including the Special Representatives talks.


These discussions have aimed to find a mutually acceptable solution while maintaining peace and stability along the border.

The border dispute is complex and has historical, geographical, and political dimensions.

Possible solutions to India-China relations

The India-China border dispute and broader bilateral relations are complex issues that require careful diplomatic efforts and mutual understanding to find solutions.

General principles and potential avenues for addressing the tensions between India and China:

Diplomatic Dialogue: Continued diplomatic engagement is crucial. Both countries should maintain open lines of communication at various levels to discuss concerns, share perspectives, and explore potential solutions.

Peaceful Negotiation: The two nations should commit to resolving their border issues through peaceful negotiations. This involves a willingness to compromise, while also respecting each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty.

Confidence-Building Measures: Implementing confidence-building measures along the border can help prevent misunderstandings and incidents. These measures might include mechanisms for early notification of military exercises and patrols, as well as regular consultations between the militaries.

Disengagement and De-escalation: In areas where there are ongoing border disputes or tensions, both sides could work toward disengagement and de-escalation of military presence to reduce the risk of confrontations.

Bilateral Agreements: Both countries could consider signing agreements that outline protocols for managing border incidents, resolving disputes, and maintaining peace and stability along the border.

People-to-People Exchanges: Encouraging cultural and academic exchanges between India and China can foster better understanding and goodwill between the people of both countries.

Regional Cooperation: India and China could explore opportunities for regional cooperation in areas of mutual interest, such as economic development, connectivity, and environmental issues.

Multilateral Platforms: Engaging in multilateral forums such as BRICS and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization can provide a space for India and China to collaborate on common challenges and interests.

Track II Diplomacy: Non-governmental organizations, think tanks, and academic institutions can play a role in facilitating informal dialogues and discussions between experts from both countries.

Long-Term Perspective: It's important to recognize that resolving complex issues like the border dispute takes time. Both countries should approach negotiations with a long-term perspective and a commitment to finding sustainable solutions.

Respect for International Law: Both India and China are signatories to international agreements and norms. Respecting and adhering to these norms can contribute to a stable and predictable international environment.


It's worth noting that any progress on these fronts requires mutual willingness, sustained effort, and a commitment to maintaining peace and stability in the region.

Practice Questions
"India-China relations have been characterized by a complex mix of cooperation, competition, and occasional tensions". Comment
Posted by on 25th Aug 2023