Operating System Maya


The Defence Ministry has decided to replace the Microsoft Operating System (OS) in all computers connected to the Internet with a new locally developed OS, Maya, based on open-source Ubuntu.


Maya has the interface and all functionality like Windows and users will not feel much difference as they transition to it.

The direction is to install Maya on all computers connected to the Internet in South Block before August 15.

Currently, Maya is being installed only in Defence Ministry systems and not on computers connected to the networks of the three Services.

Maya was developed by government development agencies within six months, Maya would prevent malware attacks and other cyberattacks.

About Operating Systems:

An operating system (OS) is a software component that acts as an intermediary between computer hardware and the user applications or software.

It provides a set of essential services and manages the hardware resources of a computer system, enabling users and applications to interact with the hardware without needing to understand its intricate details
Key functions of an operating system include:

Process Management: The OS manages processes, which are individual instances of executing programs. It allocates CPU time, memory, and other resources to processes, ensuring efficient multitasking and resource utilization.

Memory Management: The OS handles memory allocation and management, ensuring that each running program has access to the necessary memory resources. It also implements virtual memory, allowing processes to use more memory than physically available by using disk space as an extension of RAM.

File System Management: The OS manages files and directories on storage devices. It provides services to create, read, write, and delete files, as well as organizing data in a hierarchical structure.

Device Management: The OS interacts with hardware devices such as printers, disks, keyboards, and displays. It provides device drivers that act as intermediaries between the OS and hardware, enabling communication and control.

User Interface: The OS offers a user interface through which users interact with the computer system. This can be a command-line interface (CLI) or a graphical user interface (GUI) with windows, icons, and menus.

Security and Access Control: The OS enforces security measures to protect the system and its resources. It manages user accounts, permissions, and authentication, ensuring that unauthorized access is prevented.

Networking and Communication: The OS facilitates network communication, allowing computers to connect and share resources over networks. It manages network protocols and provides the necessary software for network operations.

System Services: The OS offers various system-wide services, such as timekeeping, error handling, and system logging.

Common examples of operating systems include:

Microsoft Windows: A popular OS for personal computers, available in various versions like Windows 10 and Windows 11.

macOS: The operating system used on Apple computers, known for its user-friendly interface and integration with Apple hardware.

Linux: An open-source OS kernel used in various distributions (distros) like Ubuntu, Fedora, and Debian.

UNIX: An older OS that has influenced the development of many modern operating systems, including Linux and macOS.

The choice of an operating system depends on the intended use, hardware compatibility, user preferences, and software requirements. Different operating systems offer various features and capabilities to cater to diverse computing needs.


About Malware:

Malware, short for "malicious software," refers to any software designed with harmful intent to compromise, damage, or gain unauthorized access to computer systems, networks, or user data. Malware is a broad category that encompasses various types of malicious programs, each with distinct objectives and behaviours.

Common types of malware:

Viruses: Viruses attach themselves to legitimate programs or files and spread by infecting other files or systems. When infected files are executed, the virus can replicate itself and spread to other parts of the system.

Worms: Worms are self-replicating programs that spread across networks and systems without requiring user interaction. They exploit security vulnerabilities to propagate and can cause rapid infection across a network. 

Trojans: Trojans are disguised as legitimate software but contain hidden malicious code. They often trick users into installing them, and once executed, they can perform a variety of malicious actions, such as stealing data or providing unauthorized access to the attacker. 

Ransomware: Ransomware encrypts a user's files or entire system, rendering them inaccessible. Attackers demand a ransom payment from the victim to provide the decryption key needed to restore access to the data. 

Spyware: Spyware is designed to gather information from a user's device without their consent. It can track browsing habits, collect personal information, and transmit data to malicious actors. 

Adware: Adware displays unwanted advertisements, often in the form of pop-ups or banners, to generate revenue for the attacker. While not always inherently harmful, adware can be intrusive and negatively affect user experience.

Keyloggers: Keyloggers record keystrokes made by a user, capturing sensitive information like passwords, credit card numbers, and other confidential data. This information is then sent to the attacker.

Botnets: Botnets consist of compromised computers (bots) controlled by a single entity (the botmaster). These bots can be used for various malicious activities, including distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks, spam distribution, and data theft.

Rootkits: Rootkits are designed to hide the presence of malware on a compromised system by altering or replacing system files and processes. They often provide attackers with administrative-level access while remaining undetected. 

Malvertising: Malvertising involves spreading malware through online advertisements. Attackers inject malicious code into legitimate ad networks, causing users who click on the ads to unwittingly download malware.


To protect against malware, it's important to follow cybersecurity best practices, including keeping operating systems and software up to date, using reputable antivirus and anti-malware programs, being cautious when downloading and installing software, not clicking on suspicious links or downloading attachments from unknown sources, and regularly backing up important data to prevent data loss in case of an attack.

Practice Question
 Explain the Operating System and Its Various Functions.

Posted by on 9th Aug 2023