The Commission for Air Quality Management in Delhi and NCR has revised the Graded Response Action (GRAP) to Combat air pollution.

Under the revised GRAP the State governments have been asked “to Impose strict restriction


BSIII stands for Bharat Stage III, which was the third emission standard implemented by the Indian government for vehicles.

It was a part of the Bharat Stage emission standards, which are similar to the Euro emission standards used in Europe.

The primary goal of these standards is to regulate the emissions of pollutants from vehicles, thereby improving air quality and reducing the environmental impact of transportation.


BSIV stands for Bharat Stage IV, which is the fourth stage of emission norms implemented in India for vehicles.

Similar to its predecessors, BSIV aims to regulate the emissions of pollutants from vehicles to improve air quality and reduce the environmental impact of transportation
All Bharat Stage Categories

Bharat Stage I (BS-I):

BS-I was introduced in 2000 for four-wheeled vehicles and aimed to regulate the emission of pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and nitrogen oxides (NOx).

It was the first step taken by the Indian government to address vehicular emissions and improve air quality.


Bharat Stage II (BS-II):

BS-II was implemented in 2005 and was an improvement over BS-I.

It set tighter emission norms and reduced the permissible levels of CO, HC, and NOx in vehicle exhaust.

The aim was to further reduce vehicular emissions and their impact on air quality.


Bharat Stage III (BS-III):

BS-III was introduced in 2010 and brought even stricter emission standards. It targeted significant reductions in CO, HC, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) emissions. BS-III was a major milestone in the efforts to curb air pollution from vehicles.


Bharat Stage IV (BS-IV):

BS-IV came into effect in various phases starting in 2010 for different regions of India. It further reduced the permissible levels of CO, HC, NOx, and PM from vehicle exhaust. BS-IV was a significant step towards cleaner emissions and contributed to improved air quality.


Bharat Stage V (BS-V):

BS-V was initially scheduled to be implemented in 2019 but was skipped in Favor of directly transitioning to Bharat Stage VI (BSVI) in a few select cities due to the urgent need to combat air pollution.

It aimed for more stringent emission norms and a further reduction in pollutants.


Bharat Stage VI (BS-VI): BS-VI was implemented nationwide in April 2020. It is the most advanced and strictest emission standard in India to date. BSVI sets very low limits on the emission of pollutants, including NOx, HC, CO, and PM.

It also introduced norms for limiting particulate number (PN) and on-board diagnostics (OBD) for improved monitoring of vehicle emissions.

Comparative Analysis of Bharat Stage Categories

Each successive Bharat Stage category represents a significant reduction in permissible emissions compared to its predecessor. As the emission standards advance, the levels of harmful pollutants released by vehicles decrease, resulting in cleaner air and improved public health. Here's a general comparative analysis of the different BS categories:


Pollution Reduction:

With each successive stage, there is a substantial reduction in the emission of pollutants like NOx, HC, CO, and PM.

The move from one stage to the next contributes to a cleaner environment and better air quality.


Technological Advancements:

Meeting more stringent emission norms necessitates the use of advanced technologies in vehicles, such as improved engine design, exhaust after-treatment systems (like selective catalytic reduction), and better fuel quality.

This leads to technology advancements and innovation in the automotive industry.


Challenges in Implementation:

The transition from one BS stage to the next poses challenges for both vehicle manufacturers and the government.

Upgrading vehicle fleets and ensuring the availability of higher-quality fuel are some of the hurdles to overcome during the implementation process.


Public Health Benefits:

The reduction in vehicular emissions directly translates to improved public health, as it lowers the risk of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases caused by air pollution.


National and Global Commitments:

The introduction of more stringent emission standards aligns with India's commitments to mitigate climate change and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

It also brings the country in line with global efforts to combat air pollution and protect the environment

Posted by on 29th Jul 2023