Dialogue on airspace violations near LAC

The News

India and China discussed ways to establish a better understanding of how to manage airspace and prevent violations along the Line of Actual Control (LAC).

This was discussed earlier this week during routine Confidence Building Measures (CBM) talks on the ground in eastern Ladakh.

China recently violated India's airspace and breached Confidence-Building Measures (CBM) during a special round of military talks between the two nations, to which India strongly objected.

China has upgraded all of its major air bases facing India, including Hotan, Kashgar, Gargunshan, and Shigatse, over the past two years.

India, for its part, keeps all of its northern border airbases on high operational alert.


Airspace, in international law, is the space above a particular national territory, treated as belonging to the government controlling the territory.

It does not include outer space, which, under the Outer Space Treaty (1967), is declared to be free and not subject to national appropriation.

The treaty, however, did not define the altitude at which outer space begins and air space ends.

Airspace and its Sovereignty

In international law, airspace refers to the area above a particular country's borders, which is regarded as belonging to that country's government.

According to the Outer Space Treaty (1967), outer space is declared to be free and not subject to national appropriation, so it is not included in this definition.

However, the treaty did not specify at what altitude the boundaries between air and outer space begin and end.

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) was formed in 1944 at the Chicago Convention (ICAO).

Additionally, this convention helped to establish the fundamental principles that allow international air travel.

It is ICAO, a United Nations (UN) specialised agency, which laid the groundwork for global air navigation standards and procedures.

ICAO was founded with India as one of its founding members.

ICAO's headquarters are in Montreal, Canada.

States have complete and exclusive sovereignty over the airspace above their borders, according to Article 1 of the Chicago Convention.

However, the Convention does not define these terms in their entirety.

Airlines that operate regular passenger flights cannot fly over foreign territory unless an explicit agreement is made.

Pre-clearance is required for inbound aircraft to enter Indian airspace, and the entry points have been established.

Only the Indian Air Force (IAF) is authorised to protect Indian airspace.

Posted by V.P.Nimbalkar on 6th Aug 2022